Monday, February 15, 2021

The Golden Jackal: Legal Framework 2021 applicable to EU


The Jackal is NOT an Invasive Alien Species

The Golden jackal Canis aureus moreoticus is a COMMUNITY INTEREST SPECIES  same like chamois Rupicapra rupicapra

Jackal in Danube Delta, Romania Photo: Carlo Galliani

The golden jackal (​Canis aureus) is a ​Community Interest species​ ("Habitats Directive"92/43/EEC) listed in Annex Va together with pine marten (​Martes martes​), European polecat (Mustela putorius​) and chamois (​Rupicapra rupicapra​). Monitoring of conservation status is an obligation arising from Article 11 of the Habitats Directive for all habitats (as listed in Annex I) and ​species​ (as listed in ​Annex​ II, IV and ​V​) of Community interest.

Consequently, this provision is not restricted to Natura 2000 sites and data need to be collected both in and outside the Natura 2000 network to achieve a full appreciation of the conservation status.

The main results of this monitoring need to be reported to the Commission every six years according to Article 17 of the Directive. Article 14 places a requirement for further surveillance of exploited species of flora and fauna listed in Annex V where necessary. Only after monitoring and scientific reports to the Commission, management measures can be assessed. When management measures are applied in case of ​Community Interest species ​like the golden jackal or chamois a series of hunting methods should be avoided. These hunting methods which are ​prohibited are listed in the Annex VI of the "Habitats Directive" 92/43/EEC. 

GOJAGE posted the work A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus) in Europe and the Caucasus written by Rutkowski R et al in 2015 and published in PLoS ONE which confirms the natural spreading of jackals removing suspicions of being of allochthonous origin in the new successful settlement of natural areas from Estonia. The authors suggest developing cross-boundary strategies for management and documents like those developed for Europe’s other large carnivores.

Based in this Original Article, the EU published a report on their weekly Science for Environment Policy News Alert, Issue 443, 21 January 2016 in which explained the legal situation and the reasons to do not consider jackals an invasive alien species.


In June 2015, in Biodiversity and Conservation Journal, in original paper Legal implications of range expansions in a terrestrial carnivore: the case of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Europe (here), the authors Arie Trouwborst, Miha Krofel & John D. C. Linnell addressed specific questions regarding the consideration of the golden jackal as classified an (invasive) alien species in countries where it did not formerly occur.  They showed that current international legal obligations limit the freedom of countries to decide how they wish to deal with newly arriving golden jackals. 

Later on, in July 2015, John D.C. Linnell synthesized and resumed these legal implications in a note of  LCIE Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe.

The authors of Legal implications of range expansions in a terrestrial carnivore: the case of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Europe. Biodivers Conserv 24, 2593–2610 (2015).
Arie Trouwborst

Miha Krofel

John Linnell

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