Sunday, December 13, 2015

Danubius Jackal Camp 2015

Between 15th and 18th of December 2015 a winter wildlife survey will take place in jackal specific natural areas from Romania. Crispus NGO Sibiu organized this activity within an interesting project of jackal habitat modelling in Europe leaded by Nathan Ranc, wildlife movement ecology specialist. The main objectives are to check BAM (bio-acoustic monitoring) in three areas out of our database points (green on the map) and to repeat BAM  in Caraorman and Zatoane complex (Nature Reserve in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve) where we have intstalled calling stations in May 2015 (Fig and Histria 2015 report here). We also aimed to check jackal density in our control area from Gura Dobrogei where we have calling stations installed since 2010, to a better understanding of jackal population dynamic at local scale and medium term. Crispus NGO Sibiu collaborate with DDBRA and ROMSILVA since 2010. 

Our team of Danubius Jackal Camp 2015 is composed by Ovidiu C. Banea (Environmental Ecologist, project leader), Jeniffer Hatlauf (Wildlife Ecology and Management specialist from Austria), Roxana Papp and Cristian R. Papp (Environmental Ecologists from Romania).

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Jackal suitable habitat in Czech Republic

by Ovidiu C. Banea 

On 1st and 2nd of October 2015 I could arrive in the vicinity of Bartošovický luh from Poodří Protected Landscape Area in Oder River floodplain an area suitable to jackal species. The forested hills to the eastern part of this region are known to be populated with LC (lynx, wolves, bears).
BAM couldn´t be performed due to the missing of logistics and local support but a camera trapp was instaled. In this area two jackals were killed in 2014 and 2015. No jackal was photographed, but I heard one spontaneous howl which I do not recognize as official record due to unreproducibility.

Crispus NGO Sibiu will perform BAM in this area. A contact was already established with zoologist Mgr. Štěpán Tračík, vedoucí strážní služby from Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Regionální pracoviště Správa CHKO Poodří.
On 1st day, I met Mr Fux Karachovic, maybe the sole Mongolian calligrapher in Europe and we talked about thoughts and jackals.

Friday, September 25, 2015

Golden Jackal species has different legal status in Lithuania and Poland

The news that jackal hunting is open all year round is still active on the website of Lithuanian Ministry of Environment (Last accessed date 24.09.2015), even if colleagues of GOJAGE Lithuania announced that species do not have category of IAS. GOJAGE emitted a letter of complaint on this topic on 2nd of June 2015.

IAS project in Poland named golden jackal species as native!

Thursday, September 24, 2015

New golden jackal possible record and BAM proposal in Czech Republic

by Ovidiu C. Banea & Jaroslav Červinka

Possible record of the golden jackal species in Czech Republic

On 25th of August 2015 a canid was photo-trapped by Ecol. Klára Pyšková  (here). 
But, first photography of a canid, looking like the golden jackal, was realized by photo-trapping on 28th of June 2015 by the same researcher, when she was studying the mesocarnivore species on natural areas of Elba River catchment. Taking together these data, it seems that this is the first official record of an alived jackal specimen in Czech Republic (GOJAGE C3 category, this report needs to be additionally documented and verified).

GOJAGE BAM Proposal in Czech Republic (2.10.2015)

Bartošovický luh, Poodří PLA is under Ramsar Convention, SPA and SCI under Natura 2000.

GOJAGE is planning now BAM in Bartošovický luh from Poodří Protected Landscape Area in Oder River floodplain, on the Eastern part of Czech Republic, in an opposite site of the recent observations made by Ecol. Klára Pyšková. Poodří PLA has been included as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention and is also part of an important bird migration route through Central Europe. Under the Natura 2000 system, Poodří has been declared a Special Protection Area (Bird Area) to protect the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), bittern (Botaurus stellaris) and the gadwall (Anas strepera). For the exceptional value of its natural localities, Poodří has also been included among the Sites of Community Importance under the Natura 2000 system.

Our hypothesis is that in the Eastern parts of Czech Republic, mostly the alluvial meadows of Oder River, jackal established already a reproductive population cluster suggesting that the above mentioned record is related to another dispersal route.
Next week a team of GOJAGE will perform BAM in surroundings of Bartošovický luh covering an area of 43sqkm. Jaroslav Červinka, RNDr, specialist in Vertebrate Ecology and habitat fragmentation and Environmental Ecologist Ovidiu C. Banea, MSc. will organize and participate to this brief survey.

Thursday, September 17, 2015

BAM proposal and golden jackal hunting law in Austria

by Jennifer Hatlauf and Ovidiu C. Banea


Potential ecological area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Austria. Status, habitat factors and modeling approach is the name of the recent Master thesis presented in March 2015.

According to the suitable jackal habitat modelling approach based in GIS and CORINE 2006 instruments together with actual European concerns regarding jackal population ecology, dispersal patterns and golden jackal habitat ecological factors we propose a Bio-Acoustic Monitoring (BAM) survey in Austrian natural areas where jackal has been reported before (1989-2015).


Golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a Community Interest species ("Habitats Directive" 92/43/EEC) listed in Annex Va together with pine marten (Martes martes), European polecat (Mustela putorius) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) between other mammals. Monitoring of conservation status is an obligation arising from Article 11 of the Habitats Directive for all habitats (as listed in Annex I) and species (as listed in Annex II, IV and V) of Community interest. Consequently this provision is not restricted to Natura 2000 sites and data need to be collected both in and outside the Natura 2000 network to achieve a full appreciation of conservation status. The main results of this monitoring have to be reported to the Commission every six years according to Article 17 of the directive. 
Article 14 places a requirement for further surveillance of exploited species of flora and fauna listed in Annex V where necessary. After that management measures could be applied. In Austria as in many countries of Central and SE Europe monitoring of species is deficient and commonly done by inexpert people. When management measures are applied in case of Community Interest species a series of hunting methods should be avoided. These hunting methods which are prohibited are listed in the Annex VI of the "Habitats Directive" 92/43/EEC.

Golden jackal Hunting Law in Austria

We are now suggesting BAM survey in natural areas of Austria with known historical reports of the golden jackal species complementary to the census programs performed by the Game Species Management Authority and in close collaboration with hunters and Nature Conservation bodies.

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Guldsjakal fundet i Danmark

Golden jackal (Canis aureus L. 1758) in Denmark

A jackal was road killed between Karup and Frederiks localities in Central Jutlandia, Denmark. Mr Jan Falbe Hansen found the specimen and tried to identify species with Peder Didriksen, veterinarian. The genetic analysis was perfromed by geneticist DNA expert Mrs Liselotte Wesley Andersen and showed that tissue samples collected from the front paws belong to golden jackal species.

Foto: Max Steinar, Original news 10th of September 2015 (here)

Danish Hunters' Association announced the new record of jackal species on 10th of September 2015. 

Until present day no data is available about jackal reproductive groups in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia or Belarus even if recently isolated sightings were reported. The closest jackal reproductive population cluster to Denmark was reported in West Estonia (Matsalu National Park) in 2013.
Known range of the golden jackal species encompasses territories from NE Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Southern Romania, SW Ukraine, Caucasus.

Monday, September 14, 2015

Golden Jackal is not an IAS in Lithuania

by Jos Stratford

The article on Golden Jackal in Lithuania is now published in Zoology and Ecology- it was not written with the view to publication, but with the express purpose of informing the Lithuanian Ministry of the Environment (and was successful as they dropped the proposal to list as invasive). Nevertheless, was also accepted for publication.

Sunday, September 13, 2015

BAM proposals in Danube Delta Biopshere Reserve (Romania) and Keoladeo National Park (India)

1) BAM proposal in Keoladeo National Park, India

Mrs. Aakriti Singh is working in Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History, India as Masters dissertation student under supervision of Dr. H.N. Kumara. She intends to work on ecology of Golden Jackals in Keoladeo National Park, India and was interested in jackal density at individual level (from reproductive group density related in some European countries) as she already performed Distance Sampling Method. Crispus NGO Sibiu will help with methodology of BAM.

2) BAM proposal in Periprava-Letea, Danube Delta, Romania

Recently, another study was proposed regarding jackal ethology in UF ecotouristic park of 800ha located in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Mrs. Francesca Nemola was interested in completing this study with Bio-Acoustic Monitoring. Crispus NGO Sibiu presented the last surveys and proposed another BAM in an area larger than UF terrain.

Potenzieller Lebensraum des Goldschakals (Canis aureus) in Österreich Status, Habitatfaktoren und Modellierungsansatz

Potential ecological area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Austria. Status, habitat factors and modeling approach

Author: Jennifer HATLAUF

Mrs. Jennifer Hatlauf presented her Master thesis (Masterarbeit) Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Master of Science (MSc) in Wildtierökologie und Wildtiermanagement (Wildlife Ecology and Management) an der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien (March 2015).
Her work (below you can see an abstract in English) is based on actual European concerns and uses an extensive Bibliography.
In recent years, the golden jackal (Canis aureus) is gaining attention in Central Europe and increased evidence confirms its distribution, also towards Austria. From the originiating countries of the Balkans it expands its area in a natural way (Schwarz, 2013). Previous studies show a large habitat plasticity, which leads to the question whether the golden jackal will be able to find permanantly suitable habitat in Austria.
As a result of a literature review this masterthesis presents the summary of identified factors that may play a crucial role in habitat selection of the golden jackal. Despite its generalistic nature, close to its opportunistic choice of food and its adaptability, it is possible to discern trends in its habitat selection: Its core habitat should therefore provide plentiful cover with varied structures. For example, shrub vegetation or small woods in close proximity to farm areas offer protection and adjacent fields provide sufficient food. In this regard, the intensity of agricultural management is essential. In some european study areas extensive agriculture is positively linked with golden jackal presence. In these regions the jackals are also known to regularly use arable land. However, the more intensive the agriculture, the less arable land is used by the golden jackal (Šálek et al., 2013a). Proximity to waterbodies presents another factor. A lot of records prove the presence of golden jackals near perennial rivers and wetlands (Banea et al., 2012). Likewise, lowland in general is observed as frequently used habitat and mountains with long, snowy winters might operate as barriers (Giannatos, 2004). Besides largely unexplored ecological contexts, these factors provide first indications for analysing golden jackal habitat. Based on a simple overlapping of mentioned factors in QGIS, three modeling approaches were developed. A digital elevation model, a waterbody and the CORINE Land Cover data set for Austria were used as database. Through equivalent combination of chosen factors and a generous assessment of the CORINE landuse classes, model one represents large areas of high habitat potential. This model points to the generalist nature of the golden jackal, but nevertheless, areas stand out. Model two focuses on waterbodies, especially on rivers. This is achieved through low valuation of high distances to streams, but hydraulic structures are not considered. With the complementary assessment of Ramsar wetlands, model three shows an even higher habitat potential of wetlands, than model two.
The resulting habitat potential analysis is a first estimate of possible habitat for the golden jackal in Austria and could introduce a basis of further research. The review shows that intensive research in Europe is still necessary to deepen the ecological knowledge of the golden jackal.

What about golden jackal in Finland and Sweden?

Another dispersal strategy of the golden jackal to the Baltic Sea Coast, Denmark and Germany

by Ovidiu C. Banea
This report will be published in E-Buletin of  GOJAGE website

Photo: Luca Lapini (2009)

First European jackal discovered in Denmark, this was the news we received from Dr Miklós Heltai (Gödöllő, Hungary). The jackal male with possible cryptorchidism or castrated was road killed during last summer, near the Karup locality in Central Jutlandia, Denmark.
The previous report of a jackal sighting in natural areas out of known range arrived last month from Felix Boecker (Germany). The jackal was observed during a common hunting session in Landkreis Vogelsberg, Germany.

The arrival of the golden jackal species in Denmark is the most challenging issue that GOlden JAckal informal study Group Europe (GOJAGE) wants to understand after the recent debate of the legal status in Lithuania and other Baltic States regarding to the wrong "Invasive Alien Species" category given to the golden jackal species.

Biogeography, natural migration

In a very quick period of time the golden jackal could cross all biogeographic region of Europe between Mediterranean and the Baltic Sea coasts. A long distance-dispersal (LDD) pattern was suggested by Banea et al 2014 at the first Jackal International Symposium in Serbia (Oct 2014).

Now, the new challenge we have is to demonstrate that species arrived to Denmark from Germany or another possible migration route, southern parts of Finland and Sweden. It is known that the Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia are frozen over five months every year and that the Scandinavian countries are linked by human infrastructures. Time will show us if the Baltic Sea northern and southern coasts will be colonized with reproductive groups of jackals at the same time as occurred with the Black Sea coasts. 
Still remain to demonstrate if the male individual from Denmark is related to other closer reproductive groups or was introduced by people. 

Golden jackal is not an Invasive Alien Species

An invasion begins with the introduction of a non-native species, which then establishes a reproducing population, spreads through the introduced range, and sometimes has major impacts on native ecosystems (Simberloff and Rejmánek, 2011). Non-native species, like native species, can impact human health, national and local economies, and the ecosystems and ecological communities in which they reside (Davis, 2009).
Even if invasibility, the susceptibility of a community or ecosystem to the establishment and spread of one or more introduced species (Simberloff and Rejmánek, 2011) and invasiveness, the ability of a species to reproduce, spread away from places where it is introduced, and establish in new locations (Simberloff and Rejmánek, 2011) could be assessed in the case of jackal by its high habitat plasticity (Šálek et al 2014) and common invader life history traits (Lapini and Banea, 2014), it is extremely important to avoid “invasive alien species”(IAS) terminology when is inadequate.
An IAS is a naturalized species that produces reproductive offspring, often in very large numbers, and that spreads over large areas or a nonindigenous species that spreads rapidly, causing environmental or economic damage (Simberloff and Rejmánek, 2011). The invasive species problem is simply an issue of community composition and assembly. The species invasion depends mostly of the pool of “native” species (including both the species richness and functional diversity) relative to the pool of species arriving as propagules, and how well suited each group of species is to any particular environment, invasions being more common in disturbed habitats (Perrings et al, 2010).

An Invasive Alien Species (IAS) needs to meet at least three conditions to be included on the IAS list (Convention on Biological Diversity). For jackals these conditions have never been demonstrated (Banea et al 2015, Trouwborst et al 2015).

A)  Non-native,  allochtonous, introduced by  people
This  condition  in  the  case  of the golden jackal has now become controversial  for many  researchers, including  geneticists, who assess that  the population  of  the golden  jackal present in  the  Baltic  States could  be  linked  to  the known  natural  range  of  the  main  population.  Golden  jackals could have emerged  from  the known  natural  range on the  northern  Black  Sea  coast  or  Caucasus Mountains, using the Dnieper and Daugava catchments without any relief barriers and arriving ultimately in Polesie (a jackal was shot in SW Belarus at the beginning of 2012). 

B) Pose  a threat  to biological  diversity on  the  local  scale 
Though  to  date no  country  within the known natural range of the golden jackal has reported any loss of biodiversity. 

C) Exponential population growth 
As  a phenomenon present in  some  countries  but    still representing an expression of other natural colonization patterns, with numbers below those of other  congeneric  species, such  as  foxes.  Example:  In Romania, 2.502  jackals as  compared with 17.358  red  foxes  were  shot  in the 28  counties  during the 2012-2013  hunting  season. It seems  that  the  howling  behaviour  of  golden jackals  may  produce a false impression of  high numbers of animals near villages, which has led  to overestimation of the population size.
The introduction of jackals by humans in Baltic States is an hypothesis which have never been demonstrated, oppositely, it seems that jackals arrived to the Baltic Sea coast naturally from the known range. 

If jackals fill all stages of an invasion process, with establishment, spread and impact on local biota this may indicate that they invaded a disturbed ecosystem or that the natural areas and patches which are not colonized in vicinity of knowing clusters are represented by “healthy” ecosystems with good species richness and functional diversity, as probably exists in W Polesia and NE Poland.

We may consider then that if the golden jackal species hypothetically increases its number and establish new clusters of reproductive groups in Germany, Denmark, southern parts of Sweden or Finland, together with biological diversity loss at local scale, this would constitute an indicator of a bad management of natural areas or hunting terrains or simply that the ecosystems were deficient regarding trophic networks.


Banea O., Bogdanowicz W., Lapini L., Giannatos G., and N. Spassov. (2015). Letter of complaint about the situation of the golden jackal in Lithuania. E-Bulletin GOJAGE DOI 10.13140/RG.2.1.1196.3043

Davis, M.A. (2009) Invasion Biology. Oxford University Press, New York.

Lapini L. and O.C. Banea: Life-history traits, anthropogenic expansion and conservation status of the golden jackal in Europe 1st Jackal Symposium, Veliko Gradiste, Serbia 2014 

Perrings C., Mooney H., and M. Williamson. (2010). Bioinvasions and globalization : ecology, economics, management, and policy. Oxford ; New York :Oxford University Press

Simberloff D, Rejmánek M (Eds) (2011) Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 792 pp.

Šálek M., Červinka J, Banea O.C., Krofel M., Ćirović D., Selanec I., Penezić A., Grill S., Riegert J. (2014) Population densities and habitat use of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in farmlands across the Balkan Peninsula, European Journal of Wildlife Research, April 2014, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 193-200

Trouwborst A., Krofel M. & J.D.C. Linnell. 2015. Legal Implications of Range Expansions in a Terrestrial Carnivore: The Case of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in Europe. 24 Biodiversity and Conservation

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

BAM in the Karst region, Italian-Slovenian broader activity

On 2nd of June 2015 a bio-acoustic monitoring (BAM) survey was conducted in the Karst region by various Italian and Slovenian members of GOJAGE.  

The survey is part of a BAM study in jackal specific ecological systems started in 2014 with the aim to outline an update picture about number and distribution of jackals groups in the Italian-Slovenian border area. This will be quite important to better understand the dynamics of expansion of the species in Western Europe. Between two and four groups of jackals were found in the area. In Italian side were found 1 territorial group near Doberdò and 1 single animal. In the same area, last year the responses came from 1 territorial group and 3 single. In Slovenia the team got responses from 1 howling group at Opatje Selo. 1 single animal responded at Črnotiče and another 1 single animal was observed at Prešnica. The method used for this period of time do not permit to assess the exactly jackal territorial groups number as the most activity of jackal families with litters is developed near or at the den site. In other different studies, in Romania, Bulgaria, Greece or Croatia when one jackal responded to BAM, it was considered that this is representative for one territorial group, but this assumption could overestimate jackal number in areas with low density.

This jackal population cluster with at least 9-12 jackals found in this region is an important one when considering the possibility of new areas of settlements. In fact, both Italian and Slovenian reproductive groups are probably sources for golden jackal expansion toward the Alps, but data on their situation are still scarce and fragmented, in spite of the long-lasting presence of the golden jackal species in this area.

In this activity participated Marco Pavanello, Luca Lapini, Stefano Pecorella, Andrea Caboni, Miha Krofel, Tomaz Berce, Urša Fležar, Lan Hočevar, Milan Vodnik, Matej Kovačič, Sebastijan Lamut, Janez Tarman and Jasna Mladenovič. Societies and Institutions involved in this research study are: Friulian Museum of Natural History Udine, Therion Research Group Tramonti di Sotto, University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and NGO Dinaricum.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

Alert! Jackals in Lithuania

GOJAGE and its official Jackal's Ecology Task Force JETF does not accept the declaration of the golden jackal species as being Invasive Alien Species by Environmental Board of Lithuanian authorities (here).

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

HISTRIA 2015, wildlife survey in jackal specific habitat Danube Delta

During the period 27-31 of May 2015 took place HISTRIA 2015, wildlife survey in Complexul Sacalin-Zatoane, Caraorman levee and Grindul Lupilor Nature Reserves all located in Danube Delta. See full report here.

Sacalin Lagoon, laboratory of NGO Crispus Sibiu.

Study sites during HISTRIA 2015

Jackal video recorded, in Ciotica laboratory, together with cattle and birds within less than 10 hours.

Jackal territorial groups responses in Oct 2012 and May 2015. The results should be carefully interpreted due to less activity outside the dens during early summer. Another survey should be performed in autumn-winter season to confirm data. A jackal was shot in Caraorman at the end of March 2015. See case report here. At our knowledge no impact assessment study was performed to the golden jackal species.

Sunday, March 29, 2015

Wolf and Red fox in Wigry National Park, NE Poland

by Ovidiu C Banea

After Baltica 2015 first stage, the second take home message was: 

<<<<2) The Health of the ecosystems in NW Ukraine (West Polesie) and E Poland could be another limiting factor of jackal expansion to these natural areas. The presence of owls, wolves, foxes and other mesocarnivores could explain the missing of new trophic niche for jackals. Time will tell us if this assumption could be true.>>>>

We received an e-mail from Mr Maciej Romanski (Wigry National Park) to our common mailing list of at 24th of March 2015:
Here a link to his work (Nr 11-18 pages from this report in Wigry number 1 Magazine). Evidence of wolves in this region.


I found on your pages, information about the research for golden jackal (Canis aureus) in north-eastern Poland, including the planned exploration of this species in the Wigry National Park.

I'm an worker of Wigry National Park, among other things, dealing with wolves occurring in the Wigry National Park and support foto-traps. Of course, we invite you to our area, but we should not expect success in the search for the golden jackal. The Wigry National Park have a very strong wolf population. At this time, the area of Wigry National Park is divided between the three wolf packs. The strongest is the North Pack with 10-12 individuals. 
Now, in all region wolf population is very high, traces of their presence are recorded in even small, isolated fragments of forests.

The material recorded by our photo-traps in last 2 years, set mainly in order to monitoring of wolves, have not registered any animal like a golden jackal. We registered wolves (Canis lupus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), badger (Meles meles), american mink (Neovison vison), european polecats (Mustela putorius), european pine marten (Martes martes), etc. But cameras never recorded anything like jackal. 
Jackal who would like to go through the area of the Wigry National Park, probably soon ended up as a trophy to one of the wolf pack, like this red fox:
Who knows, maybe wolves came to boast such an unusual trophy...

Maciej Romański
Wigry National Park

Another stage to perform BAM (bio-acoustic monitoring) for the golden jackal species will be performed in autumn 2015 in NE Poland and Baltic countries. The points in Wigry we never checked were sketched for the first stage as presented below:


1) How to interpret the direct fox predation by wolves, maybe if a large prey in the area:
Ovidiu C BANEA


Very important and nice evidence of wolf carrying a dead fox, but no evidence on how it was kill.
The message of the end of your letter, when you assume that Red fox was a trophy of the Wolf pack! 
We cannot see direct predation and I am really doubt of this. Maybe a dead (or injured by hunters) fox was released. If a big trophy was captured in the area we may admit direct predation from a real pack, not family group. I would like to here other specialist opinion. I am not custom with wolf predation studies in wetlands and lowland forested areas. Are there hunting terrains surrounding Wigry area. Or, exist enough reasons to suspect such a predation? Many many thanks.

At a glance in internet:

The fox would avoid wolves presence. And anyway, if jackals killed the fox the reason would be only of killing a competitive scavenger, which is not the case here.. (diet of 2063 wolf scats attached to the message) also the full story and blog wherefrom belong these words below: here.

Wolves often ignore foxes, since foxes do not compete with wolves for food as foxes hunt much smaller animals than wolves do. However, wolves will chase away, and possibly catch, injure and kill, a fox that was caught feeding on its kill. Most foxes are fast and alert enough to get away from the wolves first. Although it is rare, wolves have been known to prey on red foxes. 

Yes, the main message we have is that Canis lupus is very well mannaged in the area and your work demonstrates this. A possible limiting factor for jackal dispersal and movement to West could be the healthy of the ecosystem as occured probably in Shatsk (NW Ukraine) Bialowietza or Wigry National Parks (NE Poland).

Thank you very much and welcome to GOJAGE!

Ovidiu C Banea
Environmental Ecologist, MSc

2) Wolves could kill foxes :
by Miha KROFEL

I think it is very possible that wolf killed the fox. We had few similar cases in Slovenia (and even more of them of Eurasian lynx killing foxes). Nevertheless, foxes (in contrast of jackals) are here very common in areas with highest wolf and lynx densities. We also regularly detect foxes scavenging at wolf and lynx prey remains (e.g. we detected fox presence at 88% of roe deer killed by lynx - and this was also during the time lynx was still returning to its prey). Here are few examples of fox recordings at prey remains from our video monitoring studies:

Best wishes,


doc. dr. Miha Krofelassistant professor & wildlife researcher
University of Ljubljana
Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. for forestry
Wildlife Ecology Research Group
Večna pot 83, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia 

Source: carnivoraforum

Mr Maciej Romanski explained after  <<<< Regarding the fox and the wolf. Subject of wolf killing the foxes is currently being discussed in the region. For several years, it has been reported from the Piska Forests (Mazury Lakeland) and  Augustow Forests (information from hunters) a significant decline in the population of foxes, while a very high number of wolves. Decrease in the number of foxes applies particularly to the central part of the large forest complexes. There is no direct evidence that these two trends are linked. But this situation is discussed. >>>>

Even so, we have to have in mind every trophic or competition relations in an environment suitable to jackal collonization, including human being. 

To develop a solid model of the golden jackal movements in central Europe would be impossible if we do not know first who eats whom and at what rate. When we will be able to find the key node species of this specific ecological systems the design of a wild story could be avoided. Until then, the other species of the jackal group, Canis latrans, the American jackal or coyote interacts with wolves in winters with low food resources. But this is another congeneric species with different feeding behaviour (here).

Friday, March 6, 2015

Baltica 2015, first stage. Golden Jackal survey in NV Ukraine and E Poland

Baltica 2015, wildlife survey in NE Ukraine and E Poland. Photoreport here.

If you know about recent golden jackal (Canis aureus) sightings in Poland, plese inform Golden Jackal Informal study Group in Europe GOJAGE at the e-mail:

Thursday, February 19, 2015

BALTICA 2015, Winter Wildlife Survey in NE POLAND

by Ovidiu C. Banea

During the period 1-4 of March 2015 will take place GOJAGE Wildlife Winter survey Baltica 2015 in wetlands of NE Poland.

The main objectives are to define suitable environmental conditions for the golden jackal and to establish a network of new calling stations for future bioacoustic monitoring in the region. A brief monitoring session will be held for one control area of about 14.000 ha. The team, formed by specialists in the field of environmental ecology, zoology, forestry, ornithology and local hunters will focus attention, also on biotic factors, anthropogenic food resources and other wildlife of these ecological systems in order to establish an hypothetical model of jackal specific ecological interactions. Another topic will be to disclose advanced knowledge of jackal bioecology in order to avoid misunderstandings as occurred in other regions where jackal established new populations.
The closest site where jackal was reported is 6 km from the Polish border with Czech Republic (here). Long-distance dispersal pattern was suggested during Serbian Jackal Symposium.